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Urban road pricing
SummaryTaxonomy and descriptionFirst principles assesmentEvidence on performancePolicy contributionComplementary instrumentsReferences

Complementary instruments

As has been seen above, urban road charging cannot, on it's own, serve to achieve all objectives or to alleviate all problems. Instead it should be viewed as a potential part of an integrated set of complementary policy instruments, whereby each instrument plays a part in achieving the policy objectives or in alleviating transport problems.

Instruments may complement one another in two principal ways: firstly by overcoming each other's adverse side-effects; and secondly by re-enforcing each other's benefits. Complementary policy instruments sets out the different policy instruments which could complement urban road charging.

Complementary policy instruments

Types of instrument

Instruments to overcome the diversion of economic activity

Instruments to overcome inequities

Instruments to reinforce the benefits

Land-use

Development mix in which homes, jobs and shops are placed close together, thus reducing the need to travel

Development densities, involving an increase in density of development throughout an area to reduce the need to travel

Development pattern, including transport corridor-based developments designed to encourage provision and use of public transport

Attitudenal and behavioural

Flexible working hours

-

Telecommunications as an alternative to travel

Infrastructure measures

Reopening closed rail lines

New bus services

Light rail systems

-

New rail stations

Guided bus systems

-

-

New rail services on existing lines

-

-

-

Park and ride

-

-

Management of the infrastructure

-

Bus priorities

Car sharing

-

-

-

Conventional traffic management

-

-

-

Urban traffic control systems

-

-

-

Traffic calming measures

Charging

-

Reduction of vehicle ownership taxes

Parking charges

-

-

Reduction of fuel taxes

-

Compensatory

Changes in business taxes

General subsidies for specific groups

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Text edited at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT