Transport strategy
Policy Instruments

Urban road pricing
SummaryTaxonomy and descriptionFirst principles assesmentEvidence on performancePolicy contributionComplementary instrumentsReferences


Holland, E.P. and Watson, P.L. (1978) Traffic restraint in Singapore. 1. Measuring the effects of the Area Licence Scheme; and 2. Some design factors in traffic pricing schemes. TEC. January 1978.

*Johansson, B. and L- G Mattsson, (1995c), (eds.) Road Pricing: Theory, Empirical Assessment and Policy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.

Larsen, O.I. (1988) The toll ring in Bergen: the first year of operation. Traffic Engineering and Control 29(4).

Lee, D (2000) Demand elasticities for highway travel, HERS Technical Documents, FHWA, Washington DC (

May A D, Roberts M and Mason P (1992). The development of transport strategies for Edinburgh. Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers. Transport 95(1).

May, AD, Coombe, D and Travers, T (1996) The London Congestion Charging research programme 5: Assessment of the impacts. Traffic Engineering and Control 37(6)

Menon, A.P.G. (2000) ERP in Singapore: a perspective one year on TEC 41(2).

*Morrison, S. A., (1986), A Survey of Road Pricing, Transportation Research 20A: 87-98.

Oldridge, B (1990) Electronic road pricing: an answer to traffic congestion? Proc Information Technology and Traffic Management. NEDO London, HMSO

Richards, M.G. et al (1996) London congestion charging research programme. 6 : the findings. TEC 37 (7/8) [also papers 1,3,5 in the series]

*Walters, A. A., (1968), The Economics of Road User Charges, World Bank Occasional Paper No. 5, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Wilson, P.W. (1988) Welfare effects of congestion pricing in Singapore. Transportation 15(3).

Berg, J T, and Young, F B (1999) Value pricing helps reduce congestion, Public Roads, Vol 62 No 5, March-April 1999, Federal Highways Administration (FHWA), Washington.

DeCorla-Souza, P (2001) Expanding the Market for Value Pricing, paper presented at the 9th World Conference on Transport Research, Seoul.

Supernak, J, Golob, J, Golob, T F, Kaschade, C, Kazimi, C, Schreffler, E and Steffey, D (2001) I-15 congestion pricing project monitoring and evaluation services task 13: Phase II year three overall report, San Diego Association of Governments, San Diego. As at on 6 December 2001.

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* denotes items which are not referred to specifically but which might form useful additional sources

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Text edited at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT