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Regulatory restrictions
SummaryTaxonomy and descriptionFirst principles assesmentEvidence on performancePolicy contributionComplementary instrumentsReferences

Complementary instruments

Regulatory restrictions cannot, on their own, serve to achieve all objectives or to alleviate all problems. Instead regulatory restrictions should be viewed as a potential part of an integrated set of complementary policy instruments, whereby each instrument plays a part in achieving the policy objectives or in alleviating transport problems.
Instruments may complement one another in two principal ways: firstly by overcoming each other's adverse side-effects; and secondly by re-enforcing each other's benefits. Complementary policy instruments sets out the different policy instruments which could complement regulatory restrictions.

Types of instrument Instruments to overcome financial barriers Instruments to overcome political barriers Instruments to compensate losers Instruments to reinforce benefits
Land use measures
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Development densities including an increase in density throughout a restricted area to reduce the need to travel
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Development mix in which homes, jobs and shops are placed close together to reduce the need to travel
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Development pattern designed to encourage use of public transport
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Parking standards for new development to encourage use of parking lots outside a restricted area
Attitudinal and behavioral measures
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Telecommunications as an alternative to travel throughout a restricted area to reduce the need to travel
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Individualised marketing
flexible working hours
car clubs
ride sharing
Infrastructure measures
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All forms of public transport and new off-street parking outside a restricted area All forms of public transport and new off-street parking outside a restricted area All forms of public transport and new off-street parking outside a restricted area
Management of the infrastructure Intelligent transport systems Parking controls, Parking controls, All forms of public transport, plus conventional traffic management, intelligent transport systems
Public transport service levels Public transport service levels
Bus priorities Bus priorities Physical restrictions
Cycle lanes and priorities Cycle lanes and priorities Parking controls
Information provision
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Variable message signs and route guidance
Pricing
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Vehicle ownership taxes exempted from restrictions Fares structures and concessionary fares of public transport Parking charges in a restricted area
Urban road charging

 

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Text edited at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT