Transport strategy
Policy Instruments

Regulatory restrictions
SummaryTaxonomy and descriptionFirst principles assesmentEvidence on performancePolicy contributionComplementary instrumentsReferences


Biezus, L. and Rocha, AJO. (1999) Does congestion management improve public transit? Logos Engenharia.

Cairns, S., Hass-Klau, C. and Goodwin, P. (1998) Traffic of highway capacity reductions: assessment of the evidence. London, Landor Publishing.

Goddard, H. (1997) Using tradable permits to achieve sustainability in the world's large cities. Environmental and Resource Economics 10 63-99.

Hayes, S., Gascon, O., Crespo, J., Bonora, S. and Gazzotti, F. (1995) Generalised and advanced urban debiting innovations: The GAUDI Project 4. Vehicle access control tools for demand management. Traffic Engineering and Control 36(6) 362-368.

Miles, J., Walker, J., Macmillan, A. and Routledge, I. (1998) Access control in city centres: objectives, methods and examples. Traffic Engineering and Control 39(12) 648-654.

Ogunsanya, A.A. (1984) Improving urban traffic flow by restraint of traffic: The case of Lagos, Nigeria. Transportation 12(2) 183-194.

Topp, H. and Pharoah, T. (1994) Car-free city centers. Transportation 21(3) 231-247.

TRANSLAND (1999) Bologna, Italy: Restriction of automobile traffic in the historical center.

Vera, P.E., Hayes, S. and Burgell, J. (1993) Findings from a GAUDI: Zone access control field-trial in Barcelona. Traffic Engineering and Control 34(3) 114-121.


Top of the page

Text edited at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT